"Predation has a total of 112 pages which are papers from writer 'Source Wikipedia'. Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Pages: 52. Chapters: Ambush predator, Apex predator, Aquatic predation, Battle at Kruger, Camouflage, Chemical defense, Crypsis, Domestic sheep predation, EcoSim, Exploding animal, Functional response, Fungivore, Grazing, Lanchester's laws, List of apex predators, Lotka-Volterra equation, Mesopredator release hypothesis, Nicholson-Bailey model, Nocturnality, Pack hunter, Paradox of enrichment, Predator trap, Prey detection, Prey drive, Stomorhina, Surplus killing, Throat clamp, Trophic function, Underwater camouflage and mimicry. Excerpt: Camouflage is the use of any combination of materials, coloration or illumination for concealment, either by making animals or objects hard to see (crypsis), or by disguising them as something else (mimesis). Examples include the leopard's spotted coat, the battledress of a modern soldier, and the leaf-mimic katydid's wings. A third approach, motion dazzle, confuses the observer with a conspicuous pattern, making the object visible but momentarily harder to locate. The majority of camouflage methods aim for crypsis, often through a general resemblance to the background, high contrast disruptive coloration, eliminating shadow, and countershading. In the open ocean, where there is no background, the principal methods of camouflage are transparency, silvering, and countershading, while the ability to produce light is among other things used for counter-illumination on the undersides of cephalopods such as squid. Some animals, such as chameleons and octopuses, are capable of actively changing their skin pattern and colours; they often use this ability both for camouflage and for signalling. Military camouflage was spurred by the increasing range and accuracy of firearms in the 19th century. In particular the replacement of the inaccurate musket with the rifle made personal concealment in battle a... 2013-09 time of publication of the book, [-University-Press.org-]"